Who was Gideon in the Bible – Gideon was a significant biblical character and the fifth judge of Israel. His story, recorded in Judges 6:11—8:32, showcases his faithfulness, courage, and wisdom as a leader. In this article, we will explore the background of Gideon’s life, his call to service, his battles, his humility, and his legacy in Hebrews 11. Join us as we delve into the remarkable story of Gideon in the Old Testament.
Table of Contents
- Gideon was a faithful, courageous, and wise leader in the Bible.
- His story is recorded in Judges 6:11—8:32.
- Gideon’s faith and obedience were demonstrated through his victories.
- He refused to be made king, acknowledging that the Lord is their true ruler.
- Gideon is remembered as a great man of faith in Hebrews 11:32–34.
Who was Gideon in the Bible
Here’s a concise set of bullet points about Gideon from the Bible:
- Gideon, also known as Jerubbaal, was a judge of Israel.
- His story is primarily found in the Book of Judges, chapters 6-8.
- Divine Calling:
- Gideon was called by God to deliver the Israelites from the oppression of the Midianites.
- He initially doubted his calling, seeking multiple signs from God.
- Miraculous Signs:
- Gideon famously laid out a fleece to test God’s will, asking for dew only on the fleece (and it happened).
- The next night, he asked for dew everywhere except on the fleece (and it happened again).
- Army Selection:
- Gideon began with an army of 32,000 men against the Midianites.
- God instructed him to reduce the number, ensuring that the victory would clearly be attributed to divine intervention.
- After a series of tests, the army was whittled down to just 300 men.
- Strategic Victory:
- Using tactics and the element of surprise, Gideon’s small force managed to create panic among the vast Midianite army, leading them to turn on each other.
- The Israelites chased and defeated the Midianites, ensuring peace for 40 years.
- Reluctant Leadership:
- After the victory, the Israelites wanted to make Gideon their king, but he refused, saying that only the Lord should rule over them.
- Despite his refusal, Gideon made an ephod from the spoils of war, which became a snare to him and his family, leading some Israelites into idol worship.
- Later Life and Death:
- Gideon had many wives and 70 sons.
- He also had a son, Abimelech, with a concubine. After Gideon’s death, Abimelech controversially tried to establish his own rule.
- Gideon died at a good old age and was buried in the tomb of his father Joash.
- Gideon is remembered for his faith and obedience, despite his initial doubts.
- His story serves as a reminder of God’s power and the dangers of forgetting Him after achieving peace and prosperity.
Gideon’s life showcases the power of faith, obedience, and the importance of attributing victories to God.
The Background of Gideon’s Life
Gideon’s story in the Bible takes place during a time of great turmoil for the Israelites. The nation was facing repeated invasions and oppression from the Midianites, Amalekites, and other Eastern foreigners for seven years. These foreign nations would destroy the Israelites’ crops and livestock, causing widespread suffering and despair among the people.
The Israelites, recognizing their disobedience to God, cried out for deliverance from their oppressive circumstances.
“And they cried out to the Lord for help.” – Judges 6:6
In response to their cries, God sent a prophet to remind the Israelites of His past provision and their forsaking of Him. This served as a crucial backdrop for the calling of Gideon, who would become the instrument of God’s deliverance for the Israelites.
“Go in the strength you have and save Israel out of Midian’s hand. Am I not sending you?” – Judges 6:14
|Oppressing Nations||Years of Oppression|
“The backdrop for Gideon’s biography begins with the Israelites facing invasions from the Midianites, Amalekites, and Eastern foreigners for seven years. These foreign nations destroyed their crops and livestock due to Israel’s disobedience to God.”
Gideon’s Call to Service
Upon hearing the cries of the Israelites, who were being oppressed by the Midianites, God called Gideon to be their deliverer. This significant moment in Gideon’s life marked the beginning of his journey as a judge and leader. Gideon’s initial hesitation and doubt about his ability to serve God were met with signs and reassurance from the Lord.
“And the angel of the LORD appeared to him and said to him, ‘The LORD is with you, O mighty man of valor.’ And Gideon said to him, ‘Please, my lord, if the LORD is with us, why then has all this happened to us? And where are all his wonderful deeds that our fathers recounted to us, saying, ‘Did not the LORD bring us up from Egypt?’ But now the LORD has forsaken us and given us into the hand of Midian.'” – Judges 6:12-13
Gideon’s journey as a judge was marked by a process of confirmation. To validate his calling, Gideon requested signs from God, known as the fleeces. In the first sign, Gideon placed a fleece on the ground and asked God to make it wet with dew while keeping the surrounding ground dry.
God granted his request, but Gideon sought further confirmation with a second request. This time, he asked for the fleece to be dry while the surrounding ground was wet. God graciously granted both signs, solidifying Gideon’s faith and confidence in his calling.
The Fleeces: Gideon’s Confirmation
The story of Gideon’s fleeces serves as a testament to his desire for certainty and his willingness to trust in God’s guidance. Although some interpret Gideon’s use of the fleeces as a lack of faith, it is important to note that Gideon already knew he was called by God; he simply sought confirmation to increase his confidence in the task at hand. In the end, the fleeces served as a means for Gideon to fully embrace his role as the deliverer of Israel and to trust in God’s power and faithfulness.
Table: Gideon’s Fleeces and Confirmations
|The wet fleece and dry ground||Gideon’s first request for a sign to confirm his calling.|
|The dry fleece and wet ground||Gideon’s second request for a sign to further strengthen his confidence.|
Through Gideon’s call to service and the confirmation he received through the fleeces, we see a man who was initially hesitant and doubtful transformed into a courageous leader, fully committed to fulfilling God’s plan. Gideon’s story reminds us of the importance of seeking confirmation in our own lives when faced with uncertainty, and it encourages us to trust in God’s guidance and provision.
Gideon’s Destruction of Idols
Gideon’s unwavering commitment to worshiping the one true God is exemplified through his courageous act of destroying the altar to Baal and the Asherah pole that belonged to his father. At God’s command, Gideon takes a stand against idolatry, symbolizing his devotion to the Lord and his rejection of false gods.
This bold action earns Gideon the nickname Jerub-Baal, which means “Let Baal Contend.” It represents his defiance against the idolatrous practices that had taken hold among the Israelites. Gideon’s act of destroying the idols not only signifies his faithfulness to God’s commandments but also serves as a powerful message to his people, urging them to turn away from false worship and return to the worship of the true God.
“I will not rule over you, nor will my son rule over you. The Lord will rule over you.” – Judges 8:23
In refusing to be made king, Gideon demonstrates humility and acknowledges that it is God alone who should be their ruler. He ensures that the victory achieved through his leadership will not lead to a shift in power, but rather to a restoration of peace and true worship.
Gideon’s faithful obedience and unwavering commitment to God’s commands set him apart as a righteous and respected leader.
|Ephod||Created with gold from plunder|
Gideon’s destruction of idols stands as a powerful testament to his faithfulness and obedience to God. It serves as a reminder to believers of the importance of worshiping the one true God and resisting the allure of false gods. Through his actions, Gideon sets an example of unwavering devotion and fidelity to God, leaving a legacy that continues to inspire and challenge believers today.
Gideon’s Army and Battles
Gideon’s leadership extended beyond his initial call to action. With the support of the tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali, Gideon assembled an army to confront their enemies. However, even with a sizeable force, Gideon grew apprehensive and sought confirmation from God. Through a series of signs and divine intervention, Gideon gained the assurance he needed to proceed with confidence.
God, in His wisdom, instructed Gideon to reduce the size of his army. By narrowing it down to only 300 men, God emphasized that victory would not come from human strength but through His power alone. This unconventional strategy showcased Gideon’s faith in God’s guidance and set the stage for the battles that lay ahead.
The battle commenced, and Gideon’s leadership and tactical prowess shone through. With only 300 men armed with trumpets, torches, and clay jars, they strategically positioned themselves around the Midianite camp and simultaneously blew their trumpets, shattered their jars, and shouted, “A sword for the Lord and for Gideon!” The Midianites, overwhelmed and confused, turned on each other, resulting in a resounding victory for Gideon and his army.
Gideon’s Army Composition
|Tribes||Number of Men|
The composition of Gideon’s army consisted of 40,000 men in total from the tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali. However, as previously mentioned, God instructed Gideon to reduce the size of his army significantly, ultimately retaining only 300 men for battle. This reduction was essential to emphasize the dependence on God’s power rather than mere human strength.
Gideon’s army and their unconventional battle tactics serve as a testament to the power of God working through faithful individuals. The victory achieved by this small but dedicated force underscores the significance of trust, obedience, and reliance on God’s guidance.
Gideon’s Humility and Refusal of Kingship
Gideon’s story in the Bible not only highlights his victories and leadership but also showcases his humility and steadfast faith in God. After the successful defeat of the Midianite coalition, the people of Israel wanted to make Gideon their first king. However, Gideon, recognizing that the Lord is their true ruler, humbly refused this offer.
By refusing to be made king, Gideon demonstrated his unwavering commitment to God’s sovereignty. He understood that true leadership comes from God alone and that his role was to faithfully serve and obey Him. Despite the temptation to accept the position of power, Gideon chose humility over exaltation, setting an example for future generations.
“I will not rule over you, and my son will not rule over you; the LORD will rule over you.” – Judges 8:23
In his refusal, Gideon ensured that the peace won through his leadership would continue for forty years. His decision to prioritize God’s rule over his own ambition solidified his legacy as a wise and humble leader.
The Importance of Humility in Leadership
Gideon’s humility serves as a valuable lesson for leaders in all areas of life. It reminds us that true leadership is not about seeking personal glory or power but rather about serving others and surrendering to God’s will. When leaders prioritize humility, they create an environment of trust, collaboration, and unity.
Humility allows leaders to recognize and value the contributions of others. It fosters a sense of equality and respect among team members, empowering them to work together towards a common goal. By exemplifying humility, leaders inspire and motivate others to embrace their own unique strengths and abilities.
- Humility encourages a culture of continuous learning and growth.
- It allows leaders to admit their mistakes and seek feedback from others.
- Humility cultivates empathy and compassion, enabling leaders to connect with their team members on a deeper level.
In conclusion, Gideon’s humility and refusal of kingship serve as powerful examples of true leadership. He recognized that leadership is not about personal gain but about serving God and His people. By prioritizing humility in leadership, we can create environments that foster collaboration, growth, and unity.
Gideon’s Creation of the Ephod
After the victorious battle against the Midianites, Gideon requested that the troops contribute gold from the plunder to create an ephod. The purpose and intent behind this action is not explicitly stated in the biblical account, but it becomes a snare to Gideon and his family.
The people begin to use the ephod for idolatrous purposes, going against God’s commands. This instance serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of idolatry and the potential pitfalls of misplaced intentions.
The ephod was a sacred garment worn by the high priest and used for seeking God’s guidance through the Urim and Thummim. However, Gideon’s creation of the ephod seems to have deviated from its proper use, leading to idolatry and the corruption of its purpose. This reminds us of the importance of obediently following God’s instructions and guarding against the allure of idolatry.
Gideon’s creation of the ephod serves as a reminder that even well-intentioned actions can have unintended consequences if not carried out in alignment with God’s commands. It highlights the need for discernment and wisdom when it comes to matters of faith and worship.
When we examine Gideon’s story as a whole, it is evident that he was a flawed but faithful leader. His creation of the ephod serves as a reminder of the complexities of human nature and the need for constant vigilance in our spiritual walk. Let us learn from Gideon’s mistakes and strive to keep our hearts and intentions pure as we seek to serve and worship God.
|The danger of misplaced intentions||Gideon’s creation of the ephod highlights the potential pitfalls of good intentions that stray from God’s commands.|
|The importance of obedience||Gideon’s story emphasizes the need to obediently follow God’s instructions and guard against idolatry.|
|Discernment and wisdom||Gideon’s actions remind us of the importance of discernment and wisdom in matters of faith and worship.|
Gideon’s Faith and Trust in God
Gideon’s story in the Bible is a testament to his unwavering faith and trust in God. Despite moments of doubt and hesitation, Gideon ultimately relied on God’s guidance and power throughout his journey. From his call to service to leading his army in battle, Gideon’s faith remained steadfast and resolute.
One of the key examples of Gideon’s faith was his dependence on God’s strength rather than his own. When faced with overwhelming odds, Gideon trusted in God’s promise of victory.
This was evident in his unconventional battle strategy, where he led an army of only 300 men to defeat the Midianites. Gideon understood that true victory came from the Lord, and he humbly accepted his role as a vessel for God’s power.
Throughout his story, Gideon’s trust in God was affirmed through signs and reassurances. He sought confirmation of his calling through various signs, such as the angel of the Lord staying with him while he prepared a meal and consuming the offering by fire. These signs strengthened Gideon’s faith and removed any doubts he may have had, allowing him to fully embrace his mission.
“…For the battle is the Lord’s…” – Gideon
Gideon’s unwavering faith and trust in God serve as an inspiration for believers today. His story reminds us of the power of relying on God’s guidance and strength, even in the face of uncertainty and challenges. By following Gideon’s example, we can learn to surrender our doubts and fears, trusting that God will equip and empower us to fulfill His purposes.
Gideon as an Example of Obedience
Gideon’s story in the Bible serves as a powerful example of obedience to God’s calling. Despite his initial doubts and fears, Gideon demonstrated unwavering faith and trust in the Lord. He willingly accepted the task of leading Israel’s army against the Midianites, even though it seemed daunting and impossible.
Throughout his journey, Gideon consistently obeyed God’s commands. He destroyed the idols that were leading the Israelites astray and followed God’s guidance in assembling his army. Gideon’s humility was also evident in his refusal of kingship, acknowledging that God alone should be their ruler.
Gideon’s obedience brings to light the importance of surrendering our own plans and desires to follow God’s will. In a world filled with distractions and temptations, Gideon’s commitment to obeying God’s commands serves as a reminder for believers today. We are called to trust in God’s guidance, even when it may seem difficult or uncertain.
“But if serving the LORD seems undesirable to you, then choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve… But as for me and my household, we will serve the LORD.” – Joshua 24:15
By following Gideon’s example of obedience, we can experience the faithfulness and blessings of God in our own lives. Just as Gideon’s obedience led to victory and peace for Israel, our obedience to God can lead to abundant life and a deepened relationship with Him.
- Gideon’s story exemplifies the importance of obedience to God’s calling.
- He demonstrated unwavering faith and trust in the Lord, despite his initial doubts and fears.
- Gideon’s obedience included destroying idols, assembling his army according to God’s guidance, and refusing kingship.
- We are called to trust in God’s guidance, surrender our plans, and obey His commands.
Gideon’s Story: Oppression and Deliverance
The story of Gideon in the Bible is a powerful tale of oppression and deliverance. During this time, the Israelites faced great hardships under the oppressive rule of the Midianites. These foreign invaders seized the opportunity to rob and mistreat the Israelites, causing them to cry out to God for help. The Israelites were in desperate need of deliverance, and God heard their cries.
God chose Gideon, a humble man from the tribe of Manasseh, to lead the Israelites in their battle against the Midianites. Gideon initially showed hesitation and doubt in his abilities, but God reassured him and confirmed His calling through signs. With God’s guidance, Gideon gathered an army and embarked on a mission to free his people from oppression.
Throughout the story, we witness Gideon’s unwavering faith and trust in God. Despite facing overwhelming odds, Gideon put his complete reliance on the Lord and His power.
Through unconventional tactics and strategic positioning, Gideon and his army of only 300 men were able to defeat the Midianite forces. This incredible victory not only freed the Israelites from oppression but also served as a testament to the faithfulness and power of God.
Gideon’s Timidity and Call to Action
Gideon, initially expressing timidity and fear, had doubts about his abilities when called by God to deliver Israel from the Midianite oppression. He felt inadequate and questioned God’s choice. However, God reassured Gideon and provided signs to strengthen his faith and confidence.
These signs, including the angel of the Lord staying while Gideon prepared a meal and the consumption of an offering by fire, confirmed God’s calling and prepared Gideon for his role as a courageous leader.
“And the Lord said to him, ‘But I will be with you, and you shall strike the Midianites as one man.'” – Judges 6:16 (ESV)
“God doesn’t always call the qualified; He qualifies the called.”
Gideon’s transformation from timidity to courage serves as a powerful reminder that God equips and empowers His servants to accomplish His purposes. Despite our own doubts and insecurities, with God’s guidance and assurance, we can step out in faith and fulfill the calling He has placed on our lives.
|Table: Gideon’s Transformation|
|Gideon’s Initial State||Gideon’s Transformed State|
|Timid and fearful||Courageous and bold|
|Doubtful of his abilities||Confident in God’s empowerment|
|Questioning God’s choice||Trusting in God’s calling|
|Feeling inadequate||Recognizing God’s sufficiency|
Gideon’s story serves as an encouragement for all who may feel inadequate or uncertain about their own abilities. Just as God transformed Gideon from timidity to courage, He can also transform us, equipping us for the tasks He has ordained for us. We can find strength and confidence in knowing that God is with us and will provide everything we need to fulfill His purposes.
Gideon’s Confirmation Through Signs
Gideon, chosen by God to deliver Israel from the oppression of the Midianites, sought confirmation of his divine calling. Doubting his abilities and feeling inadequate, Gideon asked for signs from God to ensure that he was indeed called to lead the Israelites. These signs served as a strengthening of his faith and a removal of any doubts he may have had.
First, Gideon prepared a meal for the angel of the Lord, who stayed with him and consumed the offering by fire. This miraculous sign reassured Gideon of God’s presence and approval. Gideon’s faith grew as he witnessed this supernatural event.
Additionally, Gideon asked God for a further sign involving a fleece. He requested that the fleece be wet with dew while the ground around it remained dry, and then, on another occasion, that the fleece be dry while the ground around it was wet. God graciously fulfilled both of Gideon’s requests, providing him with the confirmation he needed to trust in God’s calling.
By providing these signs, God ensured that Gideon was fully prepared and confident to fulfill his divine mission. Gideon’s story serves as a reminder that God is faithful to confirm and equip those whom He calls to serve Him.
Gideon’s Unconventional Battle and Victory
Gideon’s remarkable victory over the Midianites showcased his unwavering faith in God and his willingness to follow unconventional tactics. With only 300 men, Gideon led his forces to triumph by employing trumpets and strategic positioning to confuse and defeat the Midianite army.
This unorthodox approach demonstrated Gideon’s trust in God’s guidance and power, as he understood that victory came not from human strength, but from divine intervention.
The Battle of Gideon serves as a testament to the effectiveness of relying on God’s direction rather than conventional military strategies. Gideon’s small army symbolizes the power of God working through weakness, highlighting the importance of humility and faith in achieving success.
This victory resonates as an inspiring reminder that, with God’s guidance, even the most overwhelming challenges can be overcome.
“The Lord said to Gideon, ‘With the three hundred men that lapped I will save you and give the Midianites into your hands. Let all the others go home.'” – Judges 7:7
Through this unconventional battle, Gideon’s faith was strengthened, and the people of Israel were delivered from the oppressive Midianites. This victory not only secured a period of peace but also solidified Gideon’s legacy as a faithful and courageous leader in the annals of Israel’s history.
The Unconventional Battle Tactics of Gideon
Gideon’s victory was achieved through a series of unconventional tactics that showcased both his strategic genius and unwavering faith in God. Instead of relying on sheer numbers, Gideon strategically reduced his army from 32,000 men to a mere 300. This reduction emphasized the reliance on God’s power rather than human strength and demonstrated Gideon’s willingness to follow God’s unconventional plan.
In addition to the reduction in numbers, Gideon utilized trumpets and torches strategically to confuse and disorient the Midianite army during the night attack. This psychological warfare, combined with the element of surprise, led to panic and disarray among the Midianites, ultimately resulting in their defeat.
Gideon’s reliance on God’s guidance and his willingness to think outside the box serve as valuable lessons for believers today. This story reminds us that God’s ways are often different from our own and that He can use even the most unconventional methods to accomplish His purposes.
Final Thoughts – Who was Gideon in the Bible
In conclusion, the story of Gideon in the Bible is a powerful testament to faith, obedience, and trust in God. As the fifth judge of Israel, Gideon faced immense challenges and oppression from the Midianites. However, through God’s calling and reassurance, Gideon stepped up to lead his people and deliver them from their enemies.
Gideon’s unwavering faith in God was evident throughout his journey. Despite his initial doubts and timidity, he relied on God’s guidance and followed His commands. Through signs and confirmations, Gideon’s faith was strengthened, enabling him to fulfill his divine mission.
One of the most remarkable aspects of Gideon’s story is his unconventional battle strategy. With only 300 men, Gideon relied on God’s power and used strategic tactics to defeat the Midianite army. This victory demonstrated the incredible things that can be achieved through faith and trust in God.
Gideon’s legacy lives on in Scripture, inspiring believers to have faith, obey God’s commands, and trust in His guidance. His story serves as a reminder that God equips and empowers His servants, enabling them to accomplish great things. As we reflect on the life of Gideon, may we be encouraged to follow his example and place our faith in the Almighty God.
Who was Gideon in the Bible?
Gideon was the fifth judge and renowned as the greatest of Israel. His story is recorded in Judges 6:11—8:32. He is remembered as a faithful, courageous, and wise leader in Hebrews 11:32–34.
What is the background of Gideon’s life?
The Israelites were facing invasions from the Midianites, Amalekites, and Eastern foreigners for seven years. The Israelites cried out to God, leading to His intervention and the calling of Gideon to deliver Israel from the Midianite oppression.
How was Gideon called to service?
God called Gideon through the angel of the Lord, selecting him to lead a military force against Midian. Initially hesitant, Gideon received signs and reassurance from God, which strengthened his faith and conviction to accept his role.
What did Gideon do about the idols?
Gideon destroyed the altar to Baal and the Asherah pole that belonged to his father, demonstrating his commitment to worshipping the one true God and rejecting idolatry.
How did Gideon form his army and win battles?
Gideon rallied the tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali to join him in battle against their enemies. God reduced his army to 300 men to emphasize victory through His power. Gideon’s tactics and courage led to the successful defeat of the Midianite coalition.
Why did Gideon refuse to be made king?
After their victory, the people of Israel wanted to make Gideon their first king, but he humbly refused, acknowledging that the Lord is their true ruler. Gideon ensured that the peace won through his leadership lasted for forty years.
What was the purpose of the ephod Gideon created?
Gideon requested that the troops contribute gold from the plunder to create an ephod. While the purpose and intent behind this action are not explicitly stated, it became a snare to Gideon and his family, as the people began to use it for idolatrous purposes.
How did Gideon display his faith and trust in God?
Throughout his story, Gideon’s faith in God is evident. Despite moments of doubt and hesitation, he ultimately trusts in God’s guidance and power. Gideon depends on God’s strength rather than his own, acknowledging that victory comes from the Lord.
What does Gideon’s example teach us about obedience?
Gideon’s obedience to God, even in the face of challenges and uncertainty, sets him apart as a faithful servant. He fulfills God’s commands, even when it means going against his own family. Gideon’s example reminds believers of the importance of obeying God’s will and following His guidance.
How is Gideon remembered in Hebrews 11?
Gideon is included in the list of great men of faith in Hebrews 11:32–34. His faithful actions and victories are highlighted as examples of what can be accomplished through obedience and reliance on God.
What is the meaning of Gideon’s name?
The name Gideon has Hebrew origin, meaning a feller of trees or a hewer, reflecting his role as a great warrior.
Why were the Israelites oppressed by the Midianites?
The Israelites faced oppressive conditions under the Midianites due to their disobedience to God. The Midianites took advantage of Israel’s lack of God’s protection and caused them to suffer by robbing and mistreating them.
How did Gideon respond to his call to action?
Gideon initially displayed timidity and fear when called by God to deliver Israel. He doubted his abilities and felt inadequate for the task at hand. However, God’s reassurance and signs provided Gideon with the confidence he needed to step up and accept his calling.
How did Gideon seek confirmation of God’s calling?
Gideon sought confirmation through signs involving a meal prepared for the angel of the Lord and the consumption of an offering by fire. These signs strengthened Gideon’s faith and removed any doubts he may have had.
How did Gideon win his battles with only 300 men?
Gideon led his forces to victory using trumpets and strategic positioning to confuse and defeat the Midianite army. This remarkable victory highlighted Gideon’s faith and the power of God working through him.
What lessons can we learn from Gideon’s story?
Gideon’s story in the Bible provides valuable lessons and inspiration for believers. His faith, obedience, and trust in God serve as an example for all who strive to serve God faithfully.
Best Old Testament Commentaries
Below is a table featuring some renowned Old Testament commentaries, their publishers, and websites where they can be found. As always, it’s best to confirm availability on multiple platforms or the publishers’ websites.
|The New International Commentary on the Old Testament||Eerdmans||Eerdmans|
|Word Biblical Commentary||Zondervan||Zondervan|
|Baker Commentary on the Old Testament||Baker Academic||Baker Academic|
|The Anchor Yale Bible Commentary||Yale University Press||Yale University Press|
|Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries||InterVarsity Press||InterVarsity Press|
|Expositor’s Bible Commentary||Zondervan||Zondervan|
|The Old Testament for Everyone||Westminster John Knox Press||Westminster John Knox Press|
Note: As with the New Testament table, this table provides generalized examples and does not list each volume within the commentary series. The commentaries can usually be found on the publishers’ websites or other online book retailers such as Amazon or Christianbook. It is always advisable to check for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding availability.Purpose of Life Launcher by Gregory Gaines